Mozambique is one of the ten least developed countries in the world. It ranks 181 out of 188 countries on the United Nations Human Development Index. It has the eighth highest rate of HIV/AIDS prevalence in the world, the fifth highest rate of HIV/AIDS deaths, and the tenth lowest life expectancy at birth.
One million people died and five million were displaced in a civil war between 1977 and 1992. The country’s economy has recovered since then; it has one of the world’s highest annual average GDP growths, based on resources, agriculture, manufacturing and tourism. Gas fields found off the coast in 2011 are expected to further benefit the economy.
Mozambique’s population is growing rapidly, but wealth distribution is unequal and nearly 69% of the population still live below the income poverty line. Most people work in agriculture, but farmers struggle to grow crops. Mozambique is vulnerable to natural disasters. La Niña could cause floods and damage crops, leading to hunger and poverty.
Mozambique is a member of the Commonwealth, the Southern African Development Community and the Indian Ocean Rim Association.
- Maize-legume intensification
- Irrigation water management