ACIAR works closely with policymakers in our partner countries to optimise the impact of its research-for-development investments. A policy dialogue on rice futures in the Mekong region was held at the end of ACIAR’s 5-year Rice-based Systems Research program. These proceedings comprise the papers presented at the dialogue and synopses of the panel discussions. They emphasise that technical solutions alone are insufficient for improving the productivity and profitability of rice-based farming systems. Unless there are supportive policy settings, improvements in these systems will not occur.