For the past 30 years, ACIAR has supported research on acacia and eucalypt species for plantation forestry, because of their potential for fast growth and production of wood suitable for a variety of uses. Future success and support for plantation forestry depends on achieving sustainable production with due environmental care from the current plantations. While some authors question the sustainability of short-rotation plantation forestry, there are few published studies that have looked at this issue in a systematic manner across many countries. This report reviews the state of knowledge and the current situation in plantation forestry in South-East Asia. The review emphasises that sustainability is not a destination but a journey, and that further research and creative partnerships between all stakeholders are required for successful progress.