Village producers own the majority of large ruminant livestock in Cambodia, and up to 25% of cattle are currently exported. There is an opportunity to increase cattle production and address rural poverty. However production income is limited by common diseases such as haemorrhagic septicaemia, foot-and-mouth disease, blackleg and parasites plus poor nutritional, breeding and general husbandry and livestock management practices. This project aims to improve profitability of large ruminant production by smallholders. Working at six project sites consisting of three sets of 'matched' villages, the project team has an opportunity to compare the effects of introducing a 'best practice' health and production package.