This project examines food insecurity amongst smallholder cocoa and oil palm households in Papua New Guinea where gardening systems are under stress. It will develop and evaluate interventions to relieve the stressors on farming systems that make smallholders vulnerable to food and livelihood insecurity. Oil palm grower's per capita incomes are falling and their access to land for food gardening declining because of population pressure. The cocoa pod borer is devastating smallholder cocoa grower production and has reduced their capacity to purchase food. This project will assess the status of food security by studying socio-economic and cultural factors that influence smallholder's farming and livelihood systems and their capacity to adapt and respond to stressors. The findings will study how to sustain subsistence and commodity crop farming systems in Papua New Guinea. The project will then develop interventions to relieve pressures on farming systems, thereby reducing smallholder's vulnerability to food and income insecurity.