Many catchments in Fiji and Vanuatu have severely degraded and become unproductive, largely due to deforestation, abandonment of cropping land, and crop cultivation on steeply sloping land. This degradation has caused problems of soil erosion and run-off, and threats to downstream land, freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems. Re-establishing agroforestry systems and reforestation can improve catchment management and function. This small research activity will identify technical, economic and sociocultural opportunities and constraints to rehabilitate catchments using native multi-purpose trees. It will develop a strategy for larger-scale research aiming to enhance environmental conditions and food security.