Surprisingly little is known about Botswana's 50-80 thousand smallholder cattle owners who own the majority of the country's cattle, and access to high quality beef cattle remains a problem for the export industry. As well, sheep and goats play a significant role in the livelihoods of possibly 100,000 rural households, but they have been the subject of little quantifying research. The overall aim of this project is to enhance the competitiveness of smallholder livestock producers in Botswana. Researchers will seek to answer: Who is the smallholder livestock producer, and what factors constrain his/her livelihood? Secondly, how can livestock-related marketing systems be improved for the benefit of smallholders and the rural population?