Prospects for cattle export from Timor-Leste are promising, due to the rapid and steady increase of beef imports into Indonesia. But the current contribution of livestock to GDP in Timor-Leste is still low (only 4.5% to GDP of agriculture) because the local farmers have limited capacity to optimise the use of existing land and feed resources. This small project is helping to develop strategies to improve the profitability of small and medium scale cattle production systems in Timor-Leste. Activities include an initial survey to characterise the farming systems and select suitable sites, selection and training of on-ground teams and a planning workshop. The teams will benchmark biophysical and socio-economic conditions, undertake biophysical testing of improved forages and assess the adaptation of the integrated cow-calf management strategy.