Development of area-wide management approaches for fruit flies in mango for Indonesia, Philippines, Australia and the Asia-Pacific region

Project code
AUD 2,908,088
Research program manager
Ms Irene Kernot
Project leader
Mr Stefano De Faveri
Commissioned organisation
Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries
NOV 2018
NOV 2024
Project status
Legally committed/Active
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This project is reducing mango fruit-fly infestation and improving yield and quality through area-wide management and improved pre- and post-harvest practices and improving production and trade. 

The estimated number of mango growers in Indonesia and the Philippines is 2.3 and 2.5 million respectively. In both cases, over 70% of mango growers are resource-poor smallholders. 

While the area allocated to mango production is on average less than 0.15 ha, mangoes play a significant role in supplementing on- and off-farm incomes. 

Pests and diseases, along with poor crop-management practices, constantly threaten productivity and the quality of the fruit in both countries. 

In Indonesia, efforts to develop and deploy area-wide management (AWM) of fruit flies in West Java will be supported and monitored by this project. Additionally, a system will be created to enable growers to shift a significant proportion of their production to the highly fruit-fly susceptible but more lucrative Gedong Gincu variety. 

In the Philippines, a small pilot trial will test a simplified AWM-based system. 

Expected project outcomes

  • Economic benefits due to reduced fruit fry losses and improved fruit quality.
  • Increased awareness among farmers of beneficial species for a range of pests, providing greater knowledge of where and when to use insecticides and the consequences of using broad spectrum compounds.
  • Dissemination of new knowledge and skills to other farmers in the participating communities.
  • Increased capacity to adopt best practice post-harvest handling and treatment methods.
  • Increased understanding of fruit fly control strategies that are simple and inexpensive to apply.
  • Health benefits due to reduced use of broad-spectrum insecticides and improved insecticide application methods in mango production.



Summary of outcomes to date



  • Fruit fly populations at the commercially treated sites were extremely high, up to 400 flies per trap per day (FTD), compared to below 1 FTD at the two AWM sites
  • Male annihilation technique (MAT) blocking densities halved at Krasak and Sedong Lor villages. Density reduction did not affect efficacy and reduced densities will reduce implementation costs
  • Two new sites established: 1) Majalengka, West Java 2) Gresik, East Java
  • Boron trials progressing to solve White patchy rice disorder
  • Draft mango value chain report completed
  • 2020 snapshot socioeconomic survey completed
  • 2021 business training/technical guidance for mango farmers completed
  • 2022 connecting gedong gincu AWM mangoes to the modern markets is being finalized (shipments planned for late 2022)
  • The Improved fruit fly marking and observation techniques for mark, release and recapture research was shown to be efficacious on a large batch of 40 000 pupae


  • Fruit fly AWM research progressing
  • Improved fruit bagging practices reduce fruit fly infestation and disease incidence
  • Combinations of improved bagging practices and hot water, prochloraz dips result in improved quality and shelf life
  • Fruit bagging and prochloraz research published
  • Mango harvest quality monitored, Cecid fly, thrips and scab are major problems
  • In transit trials of different pre- and post-harvest treated fruit are underway


  • High-density trellis and high-density commercial pruning had significantly less mango scale and better spray penetration than low-density commercial pruning and medium density pruned mangoes
  • Protein bait compound research has identified attractive compounds for Bactrocera dorsalis and Zeugodacus cucurbitae. Australian lab trials underway


This Summary will be published on the ACIAR website and should be written in dot- point format, minimising the use of scientific jargon and acronyms (no more than 250 words). Indonesia

  • Fruit fly populations at AW IPM sites remain low compared to non-AW IPM sites
  • New site at Majalengka achieved FTD <1 within five months of implementation Majalengka growers received a 10% bonus for the high quality fruit
  • Site at Gresik was unsuitable due to field crops dominating the area and mango production a very small proportion of the area.
  • 2022 report on linking Krasak gedong gincu AW IPM farmers to the modern markets (AEON) has been completed
  • Two models of linking to markets have been tested.
    • i) Krasak fruit: responsibility to deliver fruit to several stores, this includes purchase of cartons.
    • ii) Majalengka fruit: packed by farmers in cartons supplied by Ranch Markets and fruit collected and distributed by the purchaser


  • Improved bagging practices using Taiwan bags increase fruit retention and reduce fruit fly and disease incidence
  • Combination of Taiwan bag and Hot Water prochloraz resulted in better quality fruit and longer shelf life due to delayed onset of disease
  • In transit trials demonstrated fruit quality and shelf life was significantly better for Taiwan bag and hot water prochloraz treatments

Gender Research

  • Project partners participated in the “Sout-Eeast Asia regional workshop on integrated gender in Agriculture in a changing climate” Bali 6-8 December 2022
  • Household surveys and focus group discussions are imminent
  • Online workshops are underway to develop survey protocols and develop common tools for data collection


  • Protein bait compound research has identified compounds that are attractive to the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni
  • Initial blends of protein bait compounds attracted significantly more mature fruit flies than the negative control in large cage bioassays
  • Further blend bioassays are underway
Key partners
Eastern Mennonite University
Indonesian Centre for Agriculture Socio Economic and Policy Studies
Indonesian Centre for Horticulture Research and Development
PCAARRD Philippines
Provincial Agriculturist Office
Queensland Dept of Agriculture & Fisheries
University of Gadjah Mada
University of the Philippines, Los Banos
University of the Philippines, Mindanao
fact sheet placeholder image
Fact sheet HORT/2015/042