Project final report

Evaluating smallholder livelihoods and sustainability in Indonesian coffee and cocoa value chains - Final Report

Date released
08 December 2022
Publication Code

Jeff Neilson, Faila Hartatri


This project aimed to improve smallholder livelihoods and economic development through more effective value chain interventions.

Coffee and cocoa were Indonesia’s third and fourth most important sources of agricultural export earnings, after rubber and oil palm, in 2011 (BPS, 2011). An estimated 2 million farm households across Indonesia were involved in coffee and cocoa production. In comparison with Indonesia’s other major export-oriented agricultural commodities, coffee and cocoa are both overwhelmingly smallholder crops, and are consequently held to have a greater strategic importance for poverty alleviation.

Development agencies, private sector firms and governments worldwide have applied numerous value chain approaches over the last 2 decades. However, relatively little research had been conducted on the effectiveness of these approaches for improving rural livelihoods, for achieving broader development goals, and for encouraging sustainability. A systematic assessment of these approaches was therefore timely to enable policy-makers and the private sector to make better-informed decisions about long-term sustainability strategies.

View the project page